Saturday, May 23, 2020

Civil War A Very Long And Educated War - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1285 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/05/18 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Civil War Essay War Essay Did you like this example? The Civil War took place between April 12, 1861 May 9, 1865. The Confederate fired at Fort Sumter in South Carolina in Charlestons Harbor that was the beginning of four long years. Both the North and South now had to prepare for the war ahead. Once America gained its independence from Britain the North and South already started arguing over things. The North and the South never got along and could not decide on one thing. They did not get along due to them both having different beliefs. Nobody was to blame for the start of the war, but themselves. People saw this war coming from the very beginning. Due to them not being able to handle things this caused the Nation to split into two. One of the main reasons for tThe Civil War was a very long and educatedhe Civil war was slavery. The South was still using slavery as for the North was not. They turned to industrys and machines that took the spot of African Americans. This caused tension between the United States. Another reason for the Civil War was because of the tariffs. Congress put tariffs on imported goods which the South really relied on. The South ended up getting their goods from the North. The North relied on the money to keep small business running. The South found this unconstitutional since Congress cant just tariff things like they did. The South wanted equal rights so they fought for what they wanted. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Civil War: A Very Long And Educated War" essay for you Create order The war lasted four years. As many as 620,000 people died during the war from fighting, to starvation, disease, or by accident. The North has around 22 million people while the South had around nine million people but four million of those were slaves. During the war, the North had way more supplies and advantages over the South. The North had more money, supplies, railroads, food, and factories. The only difference was that when it came to defense skills the South had that going for them. The South also had more military commanders then the North. After the first fire of Fort Sumter it took about three months for them to fight again. The next war was First Battle of Bull Run in Virginia between Richmond and Washington DC. Most people believing that the war would end quickly many government officials and spectators came to watch. The union lost and had to retreat. Northerners were shocked of the outcome and knew they had to prepare for a more serious road ahead. The South thought bec ause of the loss that the Civil War would end a lot sooner and that the North didnt have the will to fight. After that War the next one was Battle of Shiloh, this war took place on April 1862. Ulysses S. Grant took the first step on the Confederate forces in Shiloh, Tennessee. This war was a blood bath taking many tens of thousands mens life. Grant won the war and told the Confederates that Lincoln was taking this serious about maintaining the Union. After the message Southerners prepared for a longer war. Lee didnt want to wait around for the enemy to attack, so he took matters into his own hands and went to the Unions turf. He was hoping that with the victory of Maryland that the state legislatures would secede. This battle was Battle of Antietam and took place on September 1862. Lees army met General George McClellans troops and took as many as 23,000 soldiers lifes. Lee had to retreat back to Confederate turf. After McClellan failed to follow up, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation that freed all slaves in the Confederacy land. The Proclamation was limited due to the slaves on the Border States. The reason for that was because Lincoln did not want to have them in the secession. This caused it to be unenforceable. After he passed the Proclamation it came with a bunch of criticism due to it doing with slavery and restoring the Union. The Peace Democrats came in and said criticism things toward what Lincoln did. Lincoln knew what he was doing when he placed the reunification. Lincoln already knew that with a reunified nation that it would not survive if slavery was still existing. Lincoln knew that slavery was the main issue of all major sectional conflicts since the very beginning. Even though the Emancipation Proclamation did not succeed to ban slavery on the border states he still was trying. While the Two armies were still fighting on land, the confederate and Union armies fought on high seas. Lincoln went passed congress and ordered a Naval Blockade that blocked all Southern ports. The reason for this was because the Southern economy relied heavily on cotton trade with Britain, and with hopes for Lincoln that the South would struggle financially. The Confederate had a very small navy but su nk more than sixty Union ships before it was finally defeated. This war took place on March 1862 at the Battle of the Ironclads. This war ended up in a draw. One of the deadliest war was the Gettysburg, Pennsylvania during the Civil War. General Robert E. Lee launched an invasion on the North in the summer of 1863. He was then defeated by Union General George G. Meade. This battled ended up lasting three-days near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. This little battle ended up killing 52,000 men, they were either wounded, killed, or missing. This war was what they called the turning point. People called it this because the South started to lose. Lee once again was forced to retreat. The battle was a victory for the North and a loss for the South. With Lee losing to the North, Grant was invading Vicksburg, Mississippi in the West. With the Confederates trapped all they could do was surrender to Grant. This was another victory for the Union of Battle of Vicksburg. This battle gave the Union all control over the Mississippi River and this split the Confedera cy right in half. One important person during the civil war was Abraham Lincoln the 16th President of the United States at the time. Lincoln played a key role during the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment. He wanted to preserve the Nation and wanted slavery to end due to him thinking it was not right. Robert E. Lee, another important figure, was a General during the war who turned down Lincolns offer. Lincolns offer considered of him commanding Union forces over commanding the North Virginia for the Confederacy. Ulysses S. Grant was the top Union general after McClellan got fired. Grant started off in 1863 and had many victorys including Vicksburg. George McClellan was the first top general who was in charge of the Union. McClellan was fired from his job when he criticized Lincoln publicly and failed to engage Lees force. McClellan had a rather large ego and was very well know during the war. McClellan also was very timid and always avoided engaging Lees Army of Northern Virginia. After four long years of many battles the war finally came to an end. The war finally ended with Lee surrendering to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865. With the Civil War finally to an end and with the Norths victor, Lincoln took up this opportunity to pass the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. These Amendments were passed between 1865 and 1870. These Amendments gave all slaves freedom and equal rights. African Americans were finally given to chance to live and not be afraid of doing wrong and being punished. They finally got to reunite with their loved ones and live a normal life. The Civil War was a very long and educated war. Showing that no matter how much states fight we are all equal in the end.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Financial Analysis Cpix - 1025 Words

Cumberland Pharmaceuticals (CPIX) Company Overview A specialty pharmaceutical company that acquires, develops, and commercializes branded prescription products. Cumberland strives to improve quality of patient care and address unmet medical needs. With a focus on underserved niche markets, including hospital acute care and gastroenterology, Cumberland Pharmaceutical delivers products that serve patients in the U.S. Market and also makes its products available to patients internationally through select strategic partnerships. The product portfolio includes Acetadote ® (acetylcysteine) Injection for the treatment of acetaminophen poisoning, Caldolor ® (ibuprofen) Injection, the first injectable treatment for pain and fever approved†¦show more content†¦This analysis compares Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Incorporation with three other companies: Cadence Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (2012 sales of $50.18 million), Durect Corporation ($53.07 million) and Merrimack Pharmaceuticals Inc ($48.92 million). Sales Analysis Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Incorporation reported sales of $48.85 million for the year ending December of 2012. This represents a decrease of 4.5% versus 2011, when the companys sales were $51.14 million. While the companys sales decreased slightly in 2012, all three comparable companies experienced an increase in sales (between 43.0% and 200.6%). Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Incorporation currently has 106 employees. With sales of $48.85 million , this equates to sales of US$460,861 per employee. The sales per employee levels at the three comparable companies vary greatly, from US$212,700 to US$520,294 as shown in the table below. Sales Comparisons (Fiscal Year ending 2012) |Company |Sales |Sales Growth |Sales per Emp(US$) | | | |(millions) | | | | |Cumberland Pharmaceutical |48.85 |-4.50% |460,861 | | |CadenceShow MoreRelatedMonopolistic Competition2932 Words   |  12 Pagesproduct and the later exists in some cases like where; 1. there are patent rights conferred upon a single firm for a product, 2. there is a limited strategic resource, 3. economies of scale are required in order to be profitable or 4. extensive financial resources or expertise is required to enter a market. (MANCOSA, Economics Study Guide, 2010) The impact of monopolistic competition upon the chocolate industry in South Africa is that; there may be flooding of companies into the market and theRead MoreFeasibility Study Guidelines4919 Words   |  20 PagesContents 1. THE NEEDS ANALYSIS 3 Part 1: Demonstrate that the project aligns with the institution’s strategic objectives 3 Part 2: Identify and analyse the available budget(s) 3 Part 3: Demonstrate the institution’s commitment and capacity 4 Part 4: Specify the outputs 4 Part 5: Define the scope of the project 5 2. THE OPTIONS ANALYSIS 5 3. PROJECT DUE DILIGENCE 7 4. FINANCIAL ASSESSMENT 8 Part 1: Construct the project cost model 8 5. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS 14 6. DEMONSTRATE AFFORDABILITYRead MoreGlobalization and its effect on the South African economy and the JSE securities exchange9415 Words   |  38 Pageshas had on South Africa in general. Then the essay will analyse the effect it has had on South African monetary policy. Further to that it will then analyse the challenges that globalization poses to South Africa. Then there will be more specific analysis on the impact of globalization on the JSE securities exchange. This section will seek to discuss the characteristics of an efficient securities exchange. Comparing the JSE to this will make it possible to determine the effect that globalization has

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Monitoring Individual Accounts Receivable Accounting Essay Free Essays

The name that looms largest in early accounting history is Luca Pacioli, who in 1494 first described the system of double-entry clerking used by Venetian merchandisers. Of class, concerns and authoritiess had been entering concern information long before the Venetians. But it was Pacioli who was the first to depict the system ofA debitsA andA creditsA inA journalsA andA ledgersA that is still the footing of today ‘s accounting systems. We will write a custom essay sample on Monitoring Individual Accounts Receivable Accounting Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now The dual entry system was foremost used in Genoa, Italy around the thirteenth century and was farther polished in Venice. Luca Pacioli wrote about the â€Å" Method of Venice † in his 1494 book, The Summa and this caused him to be called â€Å" the male parent of accounting † . This method called for three books to be used when entering minutess ; a memoranda book, a diary and a leger. Entries where posted from the memoranda book to the diary with debits on the left and credits on the right. A test balance was required at the terminal of a fiscal period. TheA industrial revolutionA spurred the demand for more advancedA cost accountingA systems, and the development of corporations created much larger categories of external capital suppliers -A shareownersA and bondholders – who were non portion of the house ‘s direction but had a critical involvement in its consequences. The lifting public position of comptrollers helped to transform accounting into a profession, foremost in the United Kingdom and so in the United States. In 1887, 31 comptrollers joined together to make the American Association of Public Accountants. The first standardised trial for comptrollers was given a decennary subsequently, and theA foremost CPAs were licensed in 1896. With the Industrial revolution concerns expanded to great size, both in footings of gross revenues, purchases and staff. These larger concern required capital and capital required investors who in bend required proper coverage of financess. They were besides capable to increased authorities ordinance and revenue enhancement. Accounting kept on progressing to the present twenty-four hours and involves the standardisation of reportingA and the development of international accounting criterions. The cognition economic system along with the on-going information engineering alterations is impacting the manner we are making concern. We are going clients of each other, and the economic value concatenation is incorporating our concerns with our providers, clients, and authoritiess. As accounting is concerned, these peculiar alterations are being reflected in the present tendencies of switching our attending from an disused quantitative attack to a qualitative compulsion where quality, client satisfaction, and invention become the most of import constituents. What is Accounting? Accounting is by and large considered to be the procedure of maintaining path of a concern ‘ fundss by logging itsA histories collectible, A histories receivableA and other fiscal minutess – frequently with accounting. Accounting is besides a profession consisting of persons holding the formal instruction to transport out these undertakings One portion of accounting focal points on showing the information in the signifier of all-purpose fiscal statements ( balance sheet, income statement, etc. ) to people outside of the company. These external studies must be prepared in conformity with by and large accepted accounting rules frequently referred to as GAAP or US GAAP. This portion of accounting is referred to as fiscal accounting. Accounting besides entails supplying a company ‘s direction with the information it needs to maintain the concern financially healthy. These analyses and studies are non distributed outside of the company. Some of the information will arise from the recorded minutess but some of the information will be estimations and projections based on assorted premises. Three illustrations of internal analyses and studies are budgets, criterions for commanding operations, and gauging selling monetary values for citing new occupations. This country of accounting is known as direction accounting. Another portion of accounting involves conformity with authorities ordinances refering to income revenue enhancement coverage. Today much of the recording, storing, and screening facets of accounting have been automated as a consequence of the progresss in computing machine engineering. What is bookkeeping? Bookkeeping involves the recording, hive awaying and retrieving of fiscal minutess for a company, non-profit-making organisation, single, etc. Common fiscal minutess and undertakings that are involved in bookkeeping include: Charging for goods sold or services provided to clients. Recording grosss from clients. Verifying and entering bills from providers. Paying providers. Processing employees ‘ wage and the related governmental studies. Monitoring single histories receivable. Recording depreciation and other seting entries. During the clerking procedure the bookkeeper must pay attending to inside informations on papers that is base for recording ( for illustration, amount, kernel of dealing, spouse of the company ) . In some legal systems there are prescribed demands sing information that must be included in papers. If all necessary information is non included, so papers may be invalid and can non be used for clerking. There are two bookkeeping systems: single-entry clerking system and double-entry clerking system. Single-entry system normally is used by persons and double-entry system is used by companies. A individual that does clerking is called bookkeeper, while a individual that does accounting ( uses informations provided by bookkeeper to fix revenue enhancement studies ) is called an comptroller. Bookkeeping requires cognition of debits and credits and a basic apprehension of fiscal accounting, which includes the balance sheet and income statement. The relationship between accounting and clerking. The footings accountant and bookkeeper are frequently used interchangeably, but they are non the same business. Bookkeepers are the line employees of the accounting map, executing invoicing, paysheet, hard currency aggregation and other everyday undertakings. Accountants supervise bookkeepers and have many other duties. Accountants and bookkeepers are responsible for entering the day-to-day activities of a company in the accounting records. These minutess are normally recorded by concern rhythm, and in larger companies a separate employee may be in charge of each rhythm. Everyday minutess are normally recorded by the bookkeepers, and more complex minutess are recorded by comptrollers. In fact, bookkeepers in organisations may be referred to as accounting clerks. Accountants vs. bookkeepers Book maintaining is merely record of dealing, but accounting is immense scientific discipline of recording, categorization, analyze and summarizing of concern dealing and reading of different consequence. 2. A book keeper ever works under caput comptroller and book keeper is frequently said history helper. 3. Calculation of revenue enhancement and filling of revenue enhancement return is the portion of responsibilities of comptroller. But, he can take aid from book keeper for tracking the sum of the incomes of concern. 4. Book maintaining is merely similar machine work in which book keeper passes the verifiers into books but accounting work is to the full professional and need high experience for analysis and reading of fiscal statements. 5. Most hard portion of book maintaining work is to rapprochement of bank history with base on balls book, hard currency balance with physical hard currency in manus, stock in books with physical stock in Go down. Most hard work of comptroller is to do concluding history and analysis of fiscal statements. Both bookkeepers and comptrollers play a cardinal function in your concern. The chief users of accounting information Accounting is frequently called the linguistic communication of concern because all organisations set up an accounting information system to pass on informations to assist people make better determinations. The accounting information system serves many sorts of users who can be divided into two ( 2 ) groups: External and Internal users. External information users External users of accounting information are non straight involved in running the organisation. Yet many of their of import determinations depend on specially information that is dependable, relevant and comparable. They include: Stockholders ( investors ) Lenders Customers Directors Suppliers The media Lawyers Each external user has particular information demands depending on the types of determination to be made. Lenders ( Creditors ) They loan money or other resources to an organisation. Lenders look for information to assist them assess whether an organisation it likely to refund How to cite Monitoring Individual Accounts Receivable Accounting Essay, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Sanskrit free essay sample

This reference guide evolved naturally out of our studies of Ayurveda and deepening interest in the original language of this sacred science. It was compiled with the loving intent of helping to make the ancient language of Sanskrit more accessible to students and practitioners of Ayurveda. This reference contains the terms used in the primary textbooks utilized by the California College of Ayurveda plus terms drawn from a variety of other sources. The language of Sanskrit is vast, and this guide represents only a starting point for one’s studies. It is the intention of the authors to provide updated versions as a continuing reference. Om Namaste Marisa Laursen: [emailprotected] com Rob Talbert: [emailprotected] com A abadha abhyanga abhyaiga That which produces constant discomfort. Ayurvedic massage; specifically, the application of herbal oils to the body and its subsequent absorption into the body. abhyantara krimi abhyantara snehana abhysyandis Advaita Vedanta Advaita Vedanta abhyaitara snehana Herbs which block the channel of rasavaha srota, causing congestion. One of the three systems of thought in Vedanda philosophy popularized by Shankara. It teaches that the manifest creation, the soul, and God are identical. This non-dualist form argues that we are the whole and that parts are simply illusion. agni Fire; the force residing within the body that creates digestion; responsible for the transformation of one substance into another; metabolism. Agni is contained within pitta. agnidosa agnisadana aham brahmasmi ahamkara ahara rasa ajna ajna chakra ahamkara ahara rasa ajia ajia chakra faulty agni Herbs which reduce appetite. I am Brahma (in Vedanta philosophy) Sense of self or separateness; loosely translated as ego The elemental form, or essence, of food (the quality of the food as opposed to the food itself). Command The sixth chakra, located in the region commonly called the third eye between the eyebrows. The command station of the body and mind. Contains the qualities of subtle ether. akasha akruti aksepaka alochaka pitta ama alochaka pitta ama akasha akruti Ether; the idea of connectedness or space; the space that exists between all things. The volume and tension of the pulse Convulsions. Subdosha of pitta. Digests light/visual impressions. On higher level, related to perception. Resides in eyes (pupils). Toxic residue that is left behind as a by-product of poor digestion. Internal parasites. Internal oleation. 1 ama vata amadosha amasaya amavataghana amavatham ambu ambuvaha srota ama vata amahaya Rheumatoid arthritis (vata carrying ama into the joints). The vitiation of poorly digested food. Stomach Anti-rheumatic herbs. Anti-rheumatic herbs. Water The channel that carries water; also called the udakavaha srota; the water metabolism system of the body, consisting of all the metabolic functions that regulate retention and elimination (those functions residing outside of the urinary system including the production of ADH by the pituitary gland, insulin by the pancreas, and the desire for water contained within the palate); it originates in the kloman (pancreas) and the palate. amla amrit anada anagni sveda anada Sour Sacred nectar; the highest form of ojas; the source of immortality and eternal bliss. Also called soma. liss, absolute joy Non-direct fire fomentation; therapeutic actions that do not require a formal source of heat, including exercise, wearing heavy clothing, wrapping a patient in blankets, exposure to the sun, and fasting. anahagna anahata chakra ananda anandagni anahata chakra ananda anandagni Laxative The fourth chakra, located at the center of the chest. Contains the qualities of the air element. Bliss The agni that metabolizes ether, which in this context is pure joy. Faulty metabolism causes diseases that are spiritual in nature such as unhappiness, dissatisfaction and a feeling of separation from God. nandamaya kosha anandamaya kosha The bliss sheath; it makes up the majority of the causal body; contains the anandagni, which is responsible for metabolizing ether. ananta An atypical migraine headache (atypical due to the pattern of pain). Ananta is the name of the serpent upon which Lord Vishnu rests; in pictures of the great God, the serpent rises up from the back of Lord Vishnus head; so does a headache of this type. 2 anga angamarda-prashamana anna annagni Root meaning limb, portion, as in Ashtanga Yoga Anti-rheumatic, analgesic herbs. Food The agni which metabolizes food. The annagni consists of the jathagni, the dhatu agnis and the bhuta agnis and is responsible for metabolizing the earth element and converting it into the building blocks of the body. Faulty metabolism causes physical disease. annakitta annamaya kosha The remains of food in the large intestine. The food sheath or food body; our physical body which is built from the food we eat. The dominant element within its structure is the earth element. Contains the annagni which is responsible for metabolizing the earth element. annapurna annavaha srota annapurna One who gives nourishment, The Goddess of Food. The channel that carries food; originates in the stomach; the first half of the digestive channel (from the mouth to the end of the small intestine). antaragni Internal fire; the most important of all the agnis. Also called jatharagni (digestive fire) and antaragni (internal fire). antarayama antarmukhi yoni vyapat anubandha anuloma anulomana-vilomana anupana anupasaya anupasaya anuvasana basti apana vayu apara ojas apana vayu See dhanusthambha. Severe vaginal pain that is supposedly due to engaging in sex after a heavy meal and/or unusual sexual position. That which transmigrates from one body to the next (the subtlest aspect of who we are; our soul). Mild laxative, carminative. Alternate nostril breathing. The medium used to carry herbs into the body. Examples include water, milk, honey, alcohol, ghee, and sesame oil. See upasaya. Discomfort; also called asatmya. Tonifying basti. Subdosha of vata. Downward and outward moving air. Responsible for elimination of waste. Resides in the colon. One of the two types of ojas (the other being para ojas). Dwells in the vessels next to the heart, and when diminished, affects the immune system, resulting in illness. apas apasmara apatanaka apatantraka ardhavabhedaka ardita apas Water; the idea of flow and liquidity. Epilepsy. See dhanusthambha. See dhanusthambha. Pain in half the head. Hemifacial paralysis or facial palsy, a condition caused by injury to cranial nerve VII. It has the appearance of a stroke and may be caused by gross trauma such as a head injury or minor trauma such as sleeping o n an uncomfortrable pillow. Also called ekayama. The term can also mean tetanus. arishta arka arocaka nidana artava artavaha srota arinhoha arocaka nidana artava artavaha srota Medicated wine made with a decoction. Water extract prepared from distillation. Diagnosis of anorexia (loss of appetite) Egg The channel that carries menstrual fluid and ovum; consists of the fallopian tubes, uterus and vaginal canal; originates in the ovaries and uterus (the female reproductive system). artavajanana artha aruci asana asara Asatmya asava artavajanana Herbs which promote ovulation/menses. Prosperity anorexia asana Posture, the third limb of Yoga. Refers to yoga postures. Non-useful components of metabolism. Discomfort; also called anupasaya. asava Medicated wine made with freshly pressed herbal juice. A popular example is Kumari Asava, which is useful for reproductive and digestive complaints and liver tonification. ashaya ashoa Ashtanga Hridayam ashaya Vessel The number eight (8). Example: Ashoanga Yoga (the eight limbs of yoga). Ashtanga Hridayam (Anoaiga Hadayam) One of the three most important books in Classical Ayurveda (the other two are the Caraka Samhita and the Sushruta Samhita). Written by Vagbhat in the 7th century AD, Vagbhat may be the same author who wrote Ashtanga Samgraha (although this is uncertain; there may be two Vagbhats). Ashtanga Samgraha Ashtanga Samgraha One of the three supplemental (or lesser) classical Ayurveda books (the other two are the Madhava Nidanam and the Sarangadhara Saahita). Written by Vagbhat in the 7th century AD, this may be the same author who wrote Ashtanga Hridayam (although this is uncertain; there may be two Vagbats). Ashtanga Yoga ashtapana ashya asmari asmari bheda asthi asthi a gni Ashtanga Yoga (Anoaiga Yoga) ashoa acmare Eight limbed yoga, The term refers spcifically to Raja Yoga which contains eight limbs or steps. See Raja Yoga. Corrective enema. Prefix meaning eight; e. g. ashtanga means eight limbed Urinary stones. Lithotrope. Bone A dhatu agni; helps build asthi (bone); the health of this agni determines the health of asthi. Resides in the purisha dhara kala, the membrane that precedes asthi. asthi dhatu asthi dhatu One of the seven dhatus or tissues; consists of bones, nails, teeth, hair. Composed of air and earth; provides framework. Psychological function is to stand tall, attain stature. asthi saushiryam asthila asthivaha srota Osteoporosis Prostrate gland; also called paurusha granthi. The channel that carries posaka medas or unstable medas prior to becoming asthi dhatu; originates in the fatty tissues of the hips and buttocks; carrier of vata (bone porosity) and kapha (bone element) doshas. atanka aticarana yoni vyapat atisara atma vichara atman atulygotriya atyagni atyagni audbhida atman atesara That which makes life miserable. Swelling and pain in the vagina caused by excess intercourse (physical irritation). Diarrhea The process of dispelling of illusion In Sankhya philosophy, the aspect of god that resides within each of us; our spirit or soul. Embrology. High agni; when the strength of the digestive fire is too high. Also called tikshnagni. Hyperactive agni. Salt from the earth 5 aum avabahu avagha sveda see Om Paralysis. A treatment in which a person reclines in a bathtub filled with hot water and herbal decoctions. Oils may be added as well. avalambaka kapha Subdosha of kapha. Protects lungs and respiratory tissues. Related to attachment and holding on to things and to weight gain. Located in chest (heart and lungs). avaleha avila Ayurveda B baddhodara bahaya krimi bahirayama bala balya basti avila Ayurveda Sweet candy, jam or jelly. Cloudy Knowledge of life; ayus (life) and veda (knowledge). Intestinal obstruction. External parasites. See dhanusthambha. The strength or force of the pulse. Herbs which increase strength and are tonifying. Basti literally means bladder, and in Ayurveda the term is used to mean enema (a bladder was traditionally used as the device that holds the liquid used in enemas). Enemas fall in two categories, either purifying (niruha basti) or tonifying (anuvasana basti). basti shodan bayha snehana bhagat bhasma Herbs which cleanse the bladder. External oleation Native healer. An oxide prepared by purifying a substance, usually a metal, then cooking it until it becomes an ash. These are more expensive and powerful than herbs. Most are not allowed in the USA. Not considered a traditional part of Ayurvedic medicine. bhayaja bhedana bhedaniya bhrajaka pitta bhritya bhuta bhuta bhrajaka pitta Fear Mild purgative, laxative. Mild purgative, laxative. Subdosha of pitta. Digests touch, temperature, pressure, pain. Resides in skin. The term for a parent, child caretaker or guide. element, that which manifests as matter 6 bhuta agnis bhutonmada bija mantra bhuta agnis The elemental agnis; there are five, one for each element (akashagni, vayagni, tejagni, jalagni, and prithviagni). Possession by evil spirits. beja mantra A seed mantra; the essence of all other mantras. Thus, of all mantras, they have the most power. The ancient people of India described chakras as having the shape of a lotus flower. At the center of the lotus is a primary energy that is symbolized by a letter in the Sanskrit alphabet. Chanted, this is called a bija mantra. Chanting a bija mantra increases the rotation of the chakra or the frequency of prana moving through the chakra and enhances and heightens its functions. bodhaka kapha Subdosha of kapha. Moistens mouth; saliva. Protects mouth from heat of food and roughness of food and chewing. Responsible for aesthetic taste. Located in mouth. rahaman brahmacharya brihat panchamula Brihat Treya brahmacharya The combination of unmanifested pure potential and pure consciousness that exists prior to creation Sexual restraint The five great roots; part of the dashmool formula used for niruha basti. The three most important books in Classical Ayurveda. Consists of the Caraka Saahita, Sushruta Saahita, and the Ashtanga Hridayam. brimh ana brimhana chikitsa buddhi buddhi smruti prada C Caraka Samhita Caraka Saahita Make heavy; increases fat and muscle tone; tonifying pancha karma treatment. Tonification therapy, the purpose of which is to increase the internal strength of the patient. Intellect Herbs which benefit the intellect and memory. Considered the greatest of all the classical texts on Ayurveda. Written by Caraka, it contains the teachings of the sage Agnivesa, who was one of the six students of the great sage Atreya. It is Agnivesas teachings which makes up the bulk of what is known about classical Ayurveda. Caraka was himself a great physician. 7 catur The number four (4). Example: caturtha (fourth; in Vedanta, a technical term referring to the transcendental Self beyond the three states of waking, dreaming and sleep). hakra Part of the subtle nervous system (the nadis are another part). There are seven charkas, and these chakras serve as an energetic template of the nerve plexuses that function in the physical body. Chakras have the potential to generate two qualities of energy; ordinary subtle energy and a heightened subtle energy. chakradhara chakshushva chaksu chala chardi chardi-nigrahana chedana chidrodara An oil treatment in which oil is poured ove r the chakras. Herbs that benefit the eyes, promote vision. Eyes. Mobile Herbs that induce vomiting. Anti-emetic herbs (reduce vomiting) Herbs that scrape away ama; also an expectorant. A condition of perforation of the intestine resulting in abdominal swelling. Usually caused by the intake of sharp objects, wood, sand, bone or nails. Also called ksatodara. chikitsa chinamsuka chikitsa Treatment Piamater (The delicate and highly vascular membrane immediately investing the brain and spinal cord). chinna chit churna (choorna) cikitsa citta cula D daha-prashamana dahashamaka dakodara churea (curea) cikitsa Cheyne stokes respiration which occurs in terminal states of illness; a type of breathing that occurs near death. Consciousness absolute; the ocean within which we all are connected. Powdered herb; usually a powdered formula of herbs see chikitsa Consciousness Colic pain Herbs that are refrigerants; cooling to the body. Herbs which alleviate burning sensations. See udakodara. 8 dandaka A condition in which there is gross stiffness of the body; vata and kapha invade all channels and tissues of the body; considered incurable. darshana dasha dashadauhrda dana- Philosophy; observation; looking for signs and symptoms of disease by observation The number ten (10). Example: dashmula (the ten roots formula). refix meaning 10, e. g. the herbal compound danamula (dashamula) ten roots The heart-to-heart connection between a mother and her embryo whereby the embryo is able to communicate its desires to the mother through the channels which carry nutrients; in this way the heart of the mother and the heart of the fetus are connected. Also called a Bi-cardiac state. deha-samshodanas desa dhamini dhamini dhami ni dhammillaka dhanustambha dhanusthambha Herbs that induce vomiting. Habitat Artery See nadi. Arteries. Cerebellum. Tetanus. Another term sometimes used for tetanus is ardita. Sometimes means tetanus, sometimes refers to a type of convulsion. Also called apatantraka or apatanaka. There are two kinds; antarayama, where the body bends forward and bahirayama, where the body bends backward. dhara dharana dhari dharma dhatu dhatu agni dhatu srotas dhara dharaea To pour or flow concentration, the sixth limb of Yoga. The mental contemplation and retention of information into memory. That aspect of life that keeps the body from decaying God-given purpose dhatu dhatu agni dhatu srotas Tissue Tissue agnis; there are seven, one for each of the major tissues of the body. Channels through which the dhatus move as they are being formed; there are seven in all, and each leads to a kala (membrane). dhuma dhyana dhuma dhyana smoke inhalation therapy Meditation, the seventh limb of Yoga. Endurance 9 dinacharya dipana (deepana) dosha depana donha Rejuvenation of the mind; daily practices. Digestive stimulant, the action of kindling agni Three main forces which govern the body (vata, pitta and kapha); literally means faulty or to cause harm, although they only do so when they are functioning abnormally. When functioning normally, they maintain the good health of the body and guide all of the normal bodily functions raksha drava dravya dravya guna draknha Medicated wine; a fermented decoction or infusion. Liquid Substance; matter The qualities of a substance. The term is used synonymously with pharmacology, although the principles of dravya guna are the foundation for all sensory treatments, the basic knowledge necessary for treating all imbalances in the bod y. dravyagunashastra The branch of knowledge that deals with the dravyas (drugs as well as diet) that help in the maintenance of health and alleviation of diseases in the purush (human body), which is a concomitance of panchamahabhootas and atma (the soul or the consciousness). It also deals with the properties, actions, dose, time of administration and various preparations of these dravyas. Food items, like drugs, are also considered in these dravyas. dugdha dhara durgandhyanashana dvi E eka Milk as the base (instead of oil) in shirodhara. Deodorant. The number two (2). Example: dvipada sirasana (two feet to head yoga pose). Prefix one, the singular reality or transcendental Self beyond the multiplicity experienced by the unenlightened ego-bound individual. The number one (1). Example: ekamula (one root theory). ekamula ekamula Literally means one root. A herbal therapy technique where only one herb is given to the client (putting all your eggs in one basket). Haritaki(Terminalia chebula) and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) are often canditates for this technique. ekayama See ardita. 10 ela F flatus G galaugha gandha gandusha garbhada garbharoga garbhashayya sankochaka gati ela Cardamom Excessive accumulation of gas in the intestines. Pharyngitis, laryngitis. Smell; odor The practice of gargling with medicated oil to strengthen the gums and voice. Herbs which increase fertility. Diseases of the uterus. Herbs which stimulate labor. The movement of the pulse; a description of its movement based on comparing it to the movements of different animals. ghana ghee Pill; powder of a dried liquid. The clarified oil of butter. It is sattvic and has the unique prabhava of raising agni without aggravating pitta. Its easy to digest, benefits all three doshas, and carries into the body whatever it is mixed with. ghrita grahani grahi grishma guhyaroga gulma gulma guna gunas guru guti (gutika) H hadaya halimaka hamsa gati guoi greshma A perparation of ghee (clarified butter) in which herbs are infused or boiled into the ghee. . Small intestine disease. 2. Ulcers. Anti-diarrhea, binds stool. The summer season Diseases of the female reproductive system. Tumor, lump or diverticulosis. Abdominal tumor Quality or properties. Three basic qualities of nature; tamas, rajas, sattva. Teacher; one who removes the darkness of ignorance; one through whom one finds a channel to God; heavy. Tablet or pill. Mind Hepatitis C or malignant jaun dice The quality of the pulse is likened to the movement of a swan; the primary description of a kapha pulse. 11 hara haram haridra haridra meha hasta hasti meha haridra suffix) Reduces as in vata hara, pitta hara, and kapha hara. Pacifies Turmeric A type of prameha in which the urine is pungent and yelloworange. Upper extremity. Vata-type diabetes insipidus; a type of prameha in which the urine is passed continuously, without force, and is mixed with lasika (lymph). hemanta hidhma or hikka hikkanigrahaka hima hrdroga hrdya hrid roga hridaya hridaya dhara kala I ida nadi eda nadi hadroga hrdayam hidhma or hikka The winter season Hiccups Reduces hiccups. Cold infusion (aka shita kashaya). Heart disease. Heart. Heart disease. Herbs which aid the heart. ridaya dhara kala The pericardium and endocardium (the membrane which surrounds the heart). The nadi that runs from the base of the spine (the muladhara chakra) to the left nostril . It is also called the lunar nadi, as it is associated with the water element. Its energy is cool, and increased movement within it increases the watery emotions such as love, attachment, and deep feeling. ikshu iksu meha Indra J jala neti jalodara jatghni yoni vyapat jatharagni jatharagni Sugar cane Type 2 diabetes; the urine is very sweet like sugar, typical of kapha-type diabetes mellitus. An ancient Vedic deity; cosmic prana See neti See udakodara. This is a condition where each baby a woman tries to bear dies at birth or shortly thereafter. The digestive fire; the most important of all the agnis. Also called kayagni (bodily fire) and antaragni (internal fire). 12 jatismara jentaka sveda Sattvic individuals who can recollect the events of past lives. A special hut, built according to specific instructions, with a clay oven inside in which special herbs are burned. A well-oiled patient lies down on a bench in the hut for 20 minutes. ihva jiva jivaniya jivanmukta jivatman jivita jnana jnanendriya jvara jwara jwaraghna jwarahara jyotish K kala kala meha kalashanja kalka kalpa kama kamala kampa vata kampana kampavata kanda kandughna kanthya kama kamala kampa vata kala kala meha jiana jianendriya jevanmukta jevatman jeva Tongue. Individual consciousness; sould; a reflection of the Divine. Restorative, vitalizer. Liberated soul The lower aspect of the soul, connected to the physical plane, according to Memamsa philosophy. That which keeps us alive Knowledge or wisdom. In Sankhya philosophy, the five sense faculties (hearing, touch, vision, taste, smell). That which torments. Fever Reduces fever. Reduces fever. Vedic astrology. 1) Membrane 2) Time 3) Black A type of prameha in which the urine is like black ink. Chorea; other terms include ardita and tandava. Herbal paste. World cycle, world age Pleasure (as a goal, it means the pursuit of pleasure and ecstasy, the primary goal of the senses). Jaundice or hepatitis A. Parkinsons disease; also called vepathu. Tremors. Tremors due to vata; often the term used for Parkinsons disease. Prolapsed uterus. Anti-pruritic. Demulcent, aids the throat. 13 kapalabhati A fairly aggressive form of pranayama involving forcibly expelling air from the lungs as the diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract. kapha The force behind the structure and stability of the body; the elements are water and earth; its qualities are heavy, cold, moist, static, smooth and soft; its root is in the upper stomach. Also a term for mucous. kaphaja krimi karaia karam karma karmendriya karna purana karnini yoni vyapat karsana kasa kasa roga kasahara kasa-svasahara kashaya (kashayam) kathina kathinya katti basti katu kayagni kathinya kashaya kasa kasa roga Parasites in the digestive tract. Also called purishaja krimi. Method of processing; one of the eight factors determining the utility of food. Aggravates 1) The force that binds the soul to the cycle of life and death. 2) The action of a substance. In Sankhya philosophy, the five faculties of action (speech, grasping, walking, procreation, elimination). The practice of placing oil drops in the ear. Decreased or absent menses. Cleansing Cough Bronchitis Reduces cough. Expectorant, aids breathing and cough. Astringent taste or decoction. Hard The consistency of the blood vessel wall. The application of an oil pool to the back. Pungent taste. Bodily fire; the digestive fire; the most important of all the agnis. Also called jatharagni (digestive fire) and antaragni (internal fire). keshya kha khara khavaigunya kha khara khavaigunya Promotes healthy hair. Space Rough A weak or defective space within a tissue or organ where a pathological condition is likely to begin; a potential site of relocation. khya To realize. 14 kitchari, kitcheree kledaka kapha klesha kichare A meal of basmati rice cooked with split yellow mung dal ( 3 : 1 : 0. 25 water:rice:dal). Part of samsarjana karma. Subdosha of kapha. Protects lining of stomach against acids. Located in stomach. The five affliction of humanity (ignorance, egoism, attachment, hatred, clinging to life), according to Vedanta philosophy. kloman (kloma) komar bhritya komar, kumar kopana kosha koca Pancreas Pedriatic Ayurveda; that part of Ayurveda which deals with child rearing, childhood illness and their treatment. A title by which a child is addressed. (suffix) Increases, as in vata kopana, pitta kopana, and kapha kopana. Sheath or layer; energetic fields of vibration that correspond to the five elements in their subtle form which are physical manifestations of creation. There are 5 koshas, and each is a layer of our existence; they are annamaya kosha, pranamaya kosha, manomaya kosha, vijnanamaya kosha, and anandamaya kosha. There are two additional layers, Sat and Chit which are not physical. krimi krimighna krimija-siratapa kami Parasites Anthelmintic, antiparasitic. A type of headache which is due to a parasitic infection which arises due to an overindulgence in unhealthy foods and improper food combining. ksara meha ksataja ksatodara ksaya kshara kshaya kshira ksudra A type of prameha in which the urine is like alkali (strongly basic and caustic such that there is burning). Cough due to chest injury. See chidrodara. Consumption; tissue depletion; to diminish; wasting of the body associated with tuberculosis. Alkali, alkaline extract. Decreased dosha. Plant exudate or resin. Heavy breathing. 15 kumbhi sveda A treatment in which a bowl is placed in the ground and filled with a decoction of herbs. The herbs are heated with hot iron balls. A patient sits on a chair or lies in a bed over the bowl. There are openings in the bed or chair to allow heat to penetrate into the body. kundalini energy kundaline energy An energetic template of physical sexual energy. At its heightened level, though, it is not sexual but is the force that activates the chakras and causes them to function on a higher level, thereby altering perception and experience. Kundalini moves through the central nadi called the sushumna nadi, upon which the charkas are often stated to be strung like lotuses. kushtagna kwatha (kwath) L laghu laghu panchamula laghu treya kwatha Herb which eliminates skin disease. Decoction (made by boiling the hard parts of herbs). Light laghu paichamula The five lesser roots; part of the dashmool formula used for niruha basti. The three supplemental (or lesser) Classical Ayurveda books, consisting of the Ashtanga Samgraha, Madhava Nidanam and the Sarangadhara Saahita. lagnu (lagu) laksana lala meha langhana langhana chikitsa lavaia lavana lekhana lepa lingum lohama lohitaksya M laighana chikitsa Light A type of prameha in which there is slimy urine with threads like saliva. Make light; reduces bulk; purifying pancha karma treatment. Reduction therapy, the purpose of which is to either decrease the quantity of a dhatu or purify a dhatu. Salt Salty. Herbs which reduce fatty tissue and support weight loss. Body paste; used for strains, sprains and arthritis. Penis; also called medra. Iron, as used in a bhasma made of iron. A condition resulting in ammenorrhea accompanied by burning and emaciation. 16 madakaraka madakari madhava nidanam Herbs which create sleep. Narcotic herbs. One of the three supplemental (or lesser) classical books on Ayurveda (the other two are the Ashtanga Samgraha and the Sarangadhara Saahita). Written by Madhavakara, it is considered the major text on pathology and the diagnosis of disease. madhu madhu (madhura or mathura) madhu meha madhumeha mahaMahad mahan mahasneha mahat mahavaha srota mahavaha srota mahan maha- Honey Sweet taste. Vata-type diabetes mellitus (type 1); a type of prameha in which urine resembles honey and is sweet. Diabetes insipidus; juvenile diabetes; glycosuria. great Intelligence; the cosmic aspect of the intellect which also contains the individual intellect (Buddhi, ego). The great dyspnea (difficulaty breathing); also occurs in terminal illness. A medicated oil consisting of the four fats ghee, sesame oil, muscle fat and bone marrow. All the cosmic laws that make up the intelligence of the universe according to Sankhya philosophy. The Great Channel, consisting of the annavaha srota and the purishavaha srota (the entirety of the digestive channel from mouth to anus). mahayoni vyapat Similar to vatiki yoni vyapat, this is a type of vaginal pain specifically described to be due to a prolapse of the uterus and vaginal muscles. majja agni majja agni A dhatu agni; helps build majja; the health of this agni determines the health of majja. Resides in the majja dhara kala, the membrane that precedes majja. majja dhara kala majja dhara kala The membrane that holds bone marrow and the majja agni. 17 majja dhatu majja dhatu One of the seven dhatus or tissues; consists of the nervous system and anything that fills an empty space within the body, such as the brain, spinal cord, bone marrow. Also includes the sclera of the eyes. Composed of water and earth. Psychological function is fullness, completeness, peacefulness, calm, anxiety, depression, grief. majja meha majjavaha srota majjavaha srota A type of prameha in which the urine is mixed with marrow. The channel that carries posaka asthi or unstable asthi prior to becoming majja dhatu; originates in the bones and joints of the body and supplies the nerves and bone marrow; primary carrier of vata dosha. ala mala stambhana mamsa mamsa dhara kala mamsa dhatu mamsa Waste Herbs that stop the flow of waste (urine, feces, blood). Muscle mamsa dhara kala The membrane that holds mamsa (muscle) and the mamsagni. mamsa dhatu One of the seven dhatus or tissues; consists of muscles, ligaments and skin. Composed mainly of earth and some water and fire. Psychologicall y, provides courage, fortitude, selfconfidence. mamsa sarpi mamsagni mamsagni Medicated meat soup. A dhatu agni; helps build mamsa; the health of this agni determines the health of mamsa. Resides in the mamsa dhara kala, the membrane that precedes mamsa. amsavaha srota mamsavaha srota The channel that carries posaka rakta or the unstable rakta prior to becoming mamsa dhatu; according to Caraka Saahita it originates in the ligaments and skin (the upadhatu of mamsa dhatu); according to Sushruta Saahita it originates in the nerves, serum and capillaries; a carrier of kapha dosha. managni The agni which is responsible for the metabolism of fire, which in this context takes the form of sensory impressions; it is constantly metabolizing the energies coming from our environment into our bodies and our mind. Faulty metabolism causes mental disease. 8 manas manasika manda The limited mind projected by ahamkara. Faculty of cognition and action. Conditions which originate in the mind. 1)slow, dull 2) A meal of drinking only the lukewarm water in which white basmati rice is boiled ( 16:1 water:rice). Part of samsarjana karma. mandagni manduka gati manipura chakra manduka gati manipura chakra Low agni; when the strength of the digestive fire is too low. The feel of the pulse is likened to the movement of a frog; the primary description of the pitta pulse. The third chakra, located in the region of the solar plexus just above the umbilicus. Its related tissues are the liver, spleen, pancreas and small intestine. Contains the qualities of the fire element. manjista meha manobuddhivaha srota manomaya kosha manovaha srota A type of prameha in which the urine smells foul and is slightly red like manjista. Channel of understanding. The mind sheath; the primary astral body. It contains the managni, which is responsible for metabolizing fire. The channel that carries thought; refers to the entire mind, so it is the carrier of feelings and emotions as well. Has no physical location; resides within the mind, yet it is subtler. It is the channel through which the body is created; it can be seen as the channel that exists between the physical body and the astral body and through which astral impressions move. According to Caraka Saahita, these are the channels that connect the mind to the senses, which has led some authors to include the brain as a part of manovaha srota. mantha mantra (mantram) A mixture of flour, sugar, and ghee. A sacred syllable or sequence of syllables (sometimes a name, a word, or a phrase) that is used in meditation, often assigned by ones guru, and believed to tune one into the Divine. One of the most well known is the sacred sound Om (or Aum). marica Black pepper 19 marma Points on the body where veins, arteries, tendon bone and flesh meet. Also it can be where vata, pitta, kapha, sattva, rajas and tamas meets. There are 108 marma points in our body. These points can be used to heal or to harm. They are strong energy centers and are somewhat similar to acupuncture points. Massaging these points helps to remove energy and toxic blocks from the body, also improving the function of internal organs. mastiska, matulungua mastulunga avarnana kala medagni Brain and cerebrum. Meninges. A dhatu agni; helps build medas (fat); the health of this agni determines the health of medas. Resides in the medo dhara kala, the membrane that precedes medas. medas medas dhatu medas dhatu Fat; the fatty tissues of the body. One of the seven dhatus or tissues; consists of fat (composed primarily of water). Lubricates tissues of body through oiliness. Psychological function is the ability to love and receive love. medhya medhya rasayana medo dhara kala medohara medovaha srota medo dhara kala Herbs which promote intellect. Herbs which are rejuvenatives for the mind. The membrane that holds fat and the medagni. Reduces blood lipids. The channel that carries posaka mamsa or unstable mamsa prior to becoming medas dhatu; originates in the kidneys and adipose tissues of the body; carier of kapha dosha. medra Mimamsa Memamsa Penis; also called lingum. One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by Jaimini. It can be seen as the ritualistic path of Vedic knowledge. moksha mridu mrudu mudhagarbham mudra mudra Liberation of the soul from the cycle of life and death; the goal of our higher nature. Soft. Soft Malposition of the baby in utero. A gesture or arrangement of the fingers used in meditation for communication between body, mind and consciousness. 20 mukka paka mula muladhara chakra mula Ulcer Root creates the foundation for a persons psycho-spiritual development. Contains the qualities of the earth element. muladhara chakra The first, or root, chakra. Located at the base of the spine, it mutra mutra jathara mutraghata mutragranthi mutra-jnana mutrakacchra mutrakrichra mutraksaya mutrala mutrasada mutra-samgrahaniya mutrashaya mutrashukra mutratita mutratsanga mutravaha srota mutra Urine. The habitual holding of urine which causes vata to move upwards causing severe pain and distention. mutraghata mutragranthi mutra-jnana mutrakacchra mutrakrichra mutrala mutrasamgrahaniya mutrashaya Urinary retention syndromes. A tumor occurring inside the bladder which produces symptoms similar to a urinary stone. Herbs which increase urine formation. Dysuria or painful urinination. Dysuria, difficulty passing urine. Diminished urine in the aged, debilitated, and dehydrated. Diuretic. Thick, non-unctuous (non-sticky) urine. Urinary astringent; reduces urination. The urinary bladder. The mixing of urine and semen in those who engage in sexual intercourse whle having the urge to urinate. Mild pain in the bladder due to the holding of urine. Residual urine left in the bladder, urethra, or penis causing the penis to feel heavy. mutravaha srota The channel that carries urine; consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra; according to the Sushruta Saahita, it originates in the bladder and penis, although it is commonly understood to originate in the bladder and urethra; carries water (kapha) out of the body. mutra-virechaniva mutra-vishodana N mutra-virechaniva Strong diuretic, urinary purgative. utra-vishodana Urinary antiseptic. 21 nadi nadi Part of the subtle nervous sytem (charkas are another part). nadis are subtle nerve channels; an energetic template of the nerves through which prana (subtle energies) flow. These channels permeate the entire subtle body. The mind is the sum total of all the nadis. Classical yogic texts state that there are 72,000 nadis . Nadi bears different meanings in different texts; it is commonly translated to mean nerve, but can also mean subtle channels or channels in general. Other terms used synomously with nadi include dhamini, sira and srota. adi dhatu nadi pariksha nadi svedana nadi pariksha nadi svedana Some texts refer to the brain, spinal cord and nerves as a separate dhatu. Pulse diagnosis. A special type of steam therapy in which steam is applied through a hose connected to a pressure cooker while the patient is either lying on a massage table or sitting in an upright positon. nadi vijnanam nadi vijianam The reading of the pulse; used to detect existing or potential states of health and disease in a persons body, mind or spirit. nasa nashta rakta nasya Nose. Amenorrhea (lack of bleeding) Nasal drops; clears nasal passages and sinuses. Alleviates all the doshas from the neck up, maximizes absorption of prana, treats diseases of the head, sinuses and nasal passages. nava The number nine (9). Example: nava karna dravya (the nine causative factors of the universe in the Vasisheshika school of philosophy). nela neti netra basti netrahita nidana nidanam nidrajnana nela Blue Cleansing of the nose with warm salty water using a special neti pot. The application of an oil pool over the eyes. Herbs which aid the eyes. Cause; similar to Western term etiology; understanding the causitive factors of a condition. Diagnosis Hypnotic 22 idrakara nila meha nirama niruha basti nirvana nisarika niyama Nyaya Nyaya nirvana Herbal sedatives; brings on sleep. A type of prameha in which the urine is blue. Without ama Purifying basti. State of pure existence; no-mind state Arachnoid membrane. Observances, the second limb of Yoga One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by Gautama. It means arugmen t or analyiss. It outlines four methods of arriving at the truth (pramanas) which are direct perception, inference, analogy and testimony. O odona ojas A meal of plain basmati rice ( 2:1 water:rice). Part of samsarjana karma. The subtle immune system; the essence that gives the tissues and the mind strength and endurance; the force that keeps the tissues healthy. Composed primarily of earth and water (qualities similar to kapha). Produced from the essence of shukra. When strong, no disease can affect the body. The energetic template of kapha. Om (aum) The primal sound; the sound or vibration from which the entire universe emanates. According to the Vedas, om is the most sacred of all words. Used by Hindu yogis to represent the vibration which pervades the entire universe; the same sound as the one heard internally as a result of practicing yoga. P pachaka pitta pachaka pitta Subdosha of pitta. Most important fire. Converts food to the form that can be absorbed; the fire of digestion. Regulates body temperature. Resides in the small intestines and lower half of stomach (the home of pitta). pachanas pada padadaha padaharsa Herbs which digest ama. Lower extremity. The sensation of burning in the toes. The sensation of pins-and-needles in the feet due to a vata and kapha disturbance. 23 padma gati paica paka pakvashaya shula pancha paka The pulse of enlightenment, felt under the kapha finger. The number five (5). Example: paica karma (the five actions). refix meaning five, e. g. paicha karma pakvashaya shula The five sense organs paicha Also called Shodhana. Strong reduction therapy; the single most powerful healing therapy utilized in Ayurveda. Used only on strong patients; eliminates ama and excess doshas, then rebuilds internal strength (ojas). There are three components to the process; purva karma, pradhana karma, and prasha t krama. pancha jnanendriya paicha jianendriya The five potentials for action (potential organs for motor experience); the five associated organs are the anus, penis, feet, hands and mouth; other texts state the five sense organs. pancha karma aicha karma Five primary preparations of herbs including swarasa (fresh juices), phanta (hot infusions), hima (cold infusions), kwatha (decoctions) and kalka (moist bolus or paste). pancha karmendriyas pancha karmendryani pancha kasayas pancha maha bhutus pantha papma para para ojas paicha karmendryani paicha kasayas paicha maha bhutus Five motor organs. The five great elements: ether, air, fire, water earth. Digestion Colic Passage That which is born from sinful acts. beyond One of the two types of ojas (the other being apara ojas). This is the superior type; it dwells in the heart, and is the container of life itself. Any diminishment in volume would result in instantaneous death. paramatman paravak parinama paripluta The higher aspect of the soul, connected to purusha, according to Memamsa philosophy. The speech of eternal wisdom. Transformation and decay due to time and motion. A condition in which the vagina becomes swollen and painful, with a yellow or blue discharge. 24 pariseka sveda A shower of medicated decoctions used after an oil massage. The decoction is poured through a hose or a can with many small holes above the patients head. pashat krama Patanjali pattiki yoni vyapat Pataijali Rejuvenation; see rasayana. Name of the celebrated sage who created The Yoga Sutras. This is a condition of burning and ulceration in the wall of the vagina. This is most likely a vaginal infection that has become systemic resulting in fever. Herpes simplex is a form of pattiki yoni vyapat. paurusha granthi payu peya phanta picchila pinda sveda pingala nadi pingala nadi peya phaeoa Prostrate gland; also called asthila. Rectum. A meal of drinking thin rice liquid ( 8:1 water:rice). Part of samsarjana karma. Hot infusion. Oily, sticky. The local application of a pinda or bolus (small round mass) which is warm. The nadi that begins at the base of the spine within the muladhara chakra and ends at the right nostril. It is also called the solar nadi and is associated with the fire element. Its energy is warm, and stimulation of this nadi increases the fire of the intellect increasing reason, perception, and discrimination. pista meha pitta pitta A type of prameha in which the urine is thick like corn flour and white in color. The force in the body that is responsible for digestion and metabolism; its elements are fire along with a small amount of water; its principal quality is heat, although it is also light, slightly oily, unstable and sharp. itta dhara kala pittaka pittodara pizzichilli pitta dhara kala The membrane that holds pitta and the raktagni. An oil treatment in which oil is poured onto the body through a hose and massaged into the body. This is the heaviest oil treatment and therefore the most nourishing. pliha pliodara posaka dhatu pleha posaka dhatu Spleen Splenic (pleha) enlarge ment. The unstable portion of ahara rasa 25 posya dhatu prabhava posya dhatu prabhava (prabhav) The stable portion of ahara rasa Special action of a substance, an action not easily explained by its qualities; gives substances unique healing capabilities. Leukorrhea; a white discharge from the vagina. Herbs which aid menstrual and vaginal disorders. The five classical actions of pancha karma (vamana, virechana, basti, nasya and rakta mokshana). Herbs that promote conception, reduce miscarriage. Intellectual blasphemy; the failure of the intellect; crimes against wisdom Pain following intercourse in the back, calves, and thighs ocurring in girls too young for intercourse. pradara pradarahara pradhan karma prajashatapana prajnaparadha prakarana yoni vyapat prakriti prakruti prakaiti Pure potential for matter (unmanifested potential); the souls guna (sattva, rajas or tamas) in its seed form. The inherent ideal balance of the three doshas within an individual; this is determined at conception and does not change throughout a persons lifetime. pramanas pramanas Literally means proof. The four methods of arriving at truth as outlined in the Nyaya philosophy; these include direct perception, inference, analogy and testimony. pramanthi prameha Herbs that remove excess doshas at a cellular level; considered a prabhava of some herbs. Polyuria (excessive urinary volume) and diabetes. There are 20 types of prameha. Not all types of prameha are diabetes, but diabetes is a type of prameha. ramehaghna prana prana Herbs that reduce blood sugar. 1) Life-force energy 2) One of the subdoshas of vata 3) Breath 4) One of the energies controlling the functioning of the subtle body (the other two are tejas and ojas); the energetic template of vata responsible for circulation within the subtle energy field and for the movement of the subtle body through the subtle universe. prana vaha srota prana vaha srota Respiratory system. 26 prana vayu prana vayu Subdosha of vata; inward moving air. Original or primary vayu because life force energy (prana) must first come into the body. Associated with movement of thought and intake of emotions. Resides in the brain and moves downward into the chest. pranagni pranagni The agni which metabolizes water (water is the container that prana is held within when it is confined to the body). Faulty metabolism disturbs the prana and causes physical and mental disease. pranamaya kosha pranamaya kosha The breath sheath; the bridge between the physical body (annamaya kosha) and the astral body (manomaya kosha). It contains the pranagni, which is responsible for metabolizing water. pranavaha srota pranavaha srota The channel that carries prana; usually refers to the respiratory system (nasal passages, sinuses, bronchi and lungs); also relates to the colon which, through the process of digestion, also extracts and absorbs a large amount of prana; originates in the heart. pranayama pranayama Culivation of breath, the fourth limb of Yoga. Breathing practices such as alternate nostril breathing, lunar pranayama, solar pranayama, kapalbhati. prasada praschat krama prastara sveda The useful components of metabolism. Rasayana; rejuvenation following pancha karma. A special bed in which a patient lies after oleation. The bed is made with warming grains and leaves combined with spices and herbs. pratyahara pratysyaya pravahikahara prevepana prithvi puja purisha dhara kala purishaja krimi pratyahara pratycyaya Withdrawl of the senses, the fifth limb of Yoga Common cold Herbs which manage dysentery. Excessive shaking. prithve puja Earth; the idea of solidity and mobility Ritualistic meditation, done with devotion and affection; a Hindu ritual worship designed to concentrate on God. purisha dhara kala The membrane that holds feces and bone; it is where asthiagni resides; it is where vata is metabolized. See kaphaja krimi. 27 purishavaha srota The channel that carries feces; consists of the large intestine and rectum, which together make up the excretory system and is the second half of the mahavaha srota; the home of vata dosha. Purusha purva karma purva karma Pure potential for consciousness (unmanifested potential); God. Preparatory techniques for pancha karma; brings ama and any excess doshas present in the body back to their sites of origin in the digestive tract so that they can be removed by the procedures of pradhan karma. purva rupa Q R Raja Yoga purvarupa Early signs and symptoms of a condition; in Western terminology this is called the prodrome. Raja Yoga The royal yoga, one of the four most important yogic paths towards union with God; its system is presented by Pataijali as described in the Yoga-Sutra. The path contins the following eight steps: yama (restraint), niyama (observance), asana (posture), praeayama(cultivation of breath), pratyahara (sense withdrawal), dharaea (concentration), dhyana(meditation), samadhi (integration) rajah rajas Menstruation Action, turbulence, distraction; one of the three gunas, or basic qualities of nature. Applied to the mind, rajas is the state of mind dominated by lots of activity, which distracts people from their true nature as spirit. ajata rajayaksmadi rajoni vriti, rajonivrit rakta rakta bhrisaranas rakta capa vriddhi rakta dhatu rakta dhatu rajayaknma Silver, as used in a bhasma made of silver. Tuberculosis. Also called rogarat, sosa, or ksaya. Menopause. Blood Emmenagogue (promotes menstruation). Hypertension (high blood pressure). One of the seven dhatus or tissues; consists of blood/ red blood cells. Also involves blood vessels, liver and spleen. Contains the fire element; invigorates tissues and the mind. rakta meha rakta mokshana A type of prameha in which the urine is blood red. Bloodletting. The purpose is to remove toxic blood from the body and stimulate new blood formation. 28 rakta pradhara rakta prasadana rakta rodaka rakta samgrahaka rakta shodaka rakta shodana rakta stambhana rakta stambhana rakta vardhana raktagni Abnormal menstrual bleeding. Blood purifying, alterative herbs. Hemostatic herbs (astringent herbs that stop bleeding). Hemostatic herbs (astringent herbs that stop bleeding). Blood purifying, alterative herbs. Blood purifying, alterative herbs. Hemostats; astringent herbs that stop bleeding. Hemostat (stops the flow of blood). Herbs that increase blood, aid anemia. A dhatu agni; helps build rakta; the health of this agni determines the health of rakta. Resides in pitta dhara kala, the membrane that precedes rakta. raktaja krimi raktasthivi sanniat raktasthivi sanniat raktavaha srota Systemic parasites that travel through the blood. Pneumonia Pneumonia The channel that carries posaka rasa (the unstable portion of rasa prior to becoming rakta). Also called rudhira or that which carriers the red blood cells and hemoglobin; often used synonymously with blood vessels; originates in the liver and spleen; primary carrier of pitta dosha. ranjaka pitta rasa (rasam) aijaka pitta Subdosha of pitta. Imparts color. Resides in liver, gall bladder, spleen, blood. 1) Taste; 2) bodily fluid; the juice of life; plasma (the watery component of blood). It can also mean sap, mercury or vitality. In the subtle body, rasa is the substance that provides satisfaction. rasa dhatu rasa dhatu One of the seven dhatus or tissues; consists of all bodily fluids (plasma, lymph , chyle, breast milk, menses). In the subtle body, provides a sense of satisfaction. rasa shastra rasa vidya rasagni Medicinal use of metals The application of alchemy toward healing. A dhatu agni; helps build rasa; the health of this agni determines the health of rasa. Resides in the sleshma dhara kala, the membrane that precedes rasa. rasavaha srota rasavaha srota The channel through which ahara rasa flows; originates in the heart and blood vessels and includes lymphatic vessels; primary carrier of kapha dosha. rasavahini Capillary 29 rasayana rasayana Rejuvenative tonic; nourishes all dhatus and builds ojas. A specialized form of tonification that follows purification such as pancha karma; a special term meaning that which promotes longevity by preventing aging and by making the body young again. Also called pashat krama. rasayani rasi rechana rishi rochana roga rogarat roma kupa roma sanjanana roma-satana roopana ruchya rudhira ruksha (ruksham) rukshana rupa rutu rutu S sadhaka pitta sadhaka pitta rupa ruksha roma kupa Lymphatic Quantity Strong purgative. A seer; an enlightened Vedic sage. Herbs which stimulate appetite or a flavoring agent. Pain; that which gives rise to pain or disease. The terms tapa and shula are also used synonymously for pain. That which overpowers. Sweat glands; one of the openings of the ambu vaha srotas Herbs that promote hair growth. Depilatories. Vulnerary (firms tissues and organs) Herbs that stimulate taste. See rakatavaha srota. Rough quality, dry. Roughening. Signs and symptoms; clinical manifestation of disease; sight The seasons of the year. Season or time of the month. Subdosha of pitta. Digests and makes sense of sensory input; burns illusions away from truth. Fire of sadhaka pitta gives off light and heat; heat provides passion, courage, anger and the light provides wisdom and clarity. Resides in the mind, brain. sadhana The process of making action sacred (for example, food sadhana is the action of making the consumption of food sacred). adhyasadhyata Prognosis. 30 sahasra padma chakra The seventh chakra, located at the crown of the head (also called the crown chakra). Its meaning is thousand petaled lotus. Contains causal ether, the subtlest ether of all, the ether of the ocean of consciousness itself. saindhava sakara sama sama prakruti samadhi samagni samana vayu samana vayu samadhi Rock salt Urinary gravel (piec es of stone passing through the urine that may cause mild pain and blocked flow). 1. With ama 2. Balanced. The ideal, tridoshic, balanced prakruti. A balanced state of body, mind and consciousness. ntegration, the eight limb of Yoga. Absorption and pure awareness; a balanced state of supreme intelligence. Normal (balanced) agni Subdosha of vata; moves from periphery to center. Balancing air. Carries sensory impressions to the brain, venous blood to the heart, nutrients and oxygen into the bloodstream. Governs absorption. In the mind, balances and stabilizes the other vayus. Resides in small intestine; its the air that stokes the fire. samanya samjna-stapana samjnavaha srota samprapti samsarjana karma samskaras samprapti Purvarupa which disappear at the onset of the actual disease. Resuscitative. Channel of consciousness. Pathogenisis of disease; the disease process from its earliest causal stages until complete manifestation. Graduated re-administration of diet; rekindling of agni. Usually used after pradhan karma (the five actions) of PK. Generated by karma, they set the stage for our life, giving us our tendencies and creating our basic reactions to the world; they lie deep within our personality and affect our deepest belief systems. samudra samyoga san sanair meha Sea salt Combination, as in food combining. Truth A type of prameha in which the urine passes slowly with little effort. 1 sandha yoni vyapat In the ancient texts it was observed that some women, as they grew to maturity, did not like men. The condition was considered incurable, and could be an observation made of lesbian women. sandhaniya sandhi vata sandra sandra meha sangya sthapana sankhaka Sankhya Sankhya sandhi vata Healing. Osteoarthritis Dense A type of prameha in which the urine is thick when kept over night, with no sugar present. Herbs that restore consciousness. Temporal headache. One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by the sage Kapila. As a dualistic philosophy, it teaches that the univers arises throught the union of prakriti and purusha. Literally means enumeration. sannipatika (sannipata) sannipatika yoni vyapat Tri-dosha (all three doshas are involved) This condition, which is the result of all three doshas becoming vitiated, results in menorrhagia (painful menstruation); leads to infertility. sannipatikodara santosh sapta sara sarangadhara saahita sara Contentment; the cultivation of satisfaction. The number seven (7). Example: sapta dhatus (the seven tissues). Healthy essence One of the three supplemental (or lesser) classical books on Ayurveda (the other two are the Ashtanga Samgraha and the Madhava Nidanam). Written by Sarangadhara sometime between 1200-1500 AD, it is famous for its reference to pulse diagnosis and is the first to bring mention to this art. sarkara sarpa gati sarva sarvaroga nidanam carkara Urinary gravel (pieces of stone passing through the urine that may cause mild pain and blocked flow). The feel of the pulse is likened to the movement of a cobra; the main description of the vata pulse. eneral The general understanding or diagnosis of pain or disease. 32 sat sat-chit-ananda sat-chit-ananda All-encompassing, absolute truth; it is what exists beyond the illusion of creation. Where the distant edge of the anandamaya kosha (the subtlest aspect of human creation) blends with the final two layers of existence (sat and chit), these three layers make up the threefold reality of Purusha itself. Sat-chit-ananda is literally abs olute existence-pure consciousness-perfect bliss (on lower levels, in the subtle body, this corresponds to prana-tejas-ojas, and in the physical body, to vata-pitta-kapha). atmya satsang sattva Comfort; see upasaya. The company of the wise; the support of others on our journey. Clarity, purity. One of the three gunas, or basic qualities of nature. Applied to the mind, sattva is the state of mind that is clear, pure, absent of any distraction, turbulence, ignorance; a transcendent state of mind immersed in the perfection of creation. satva Sun-dried paste prepared from a cold infusion which is set in the sun until all the water has evaporated and the concentrated herbs become solid. shabdha shad shad Shad Darshan shamana (samana) shamana chikitsa shamana chikitsa Sound prefix meaning six, e. g. shad darshan The number six (6). Example: shad darsana (the six philosophical systems). The six philosophies of life: Sankhya, Nyaya, Vasisheshika, Memamsa, Yoga and Vedanta Make balanced; palliation therapy (tonifying while purifying); pacifies doshas without expelling them. Palliation therapy; a mild reduction therapy which is generally performed on a patient who is not strong enough for pancha karma procedures. Its overall effect is that of a gentle cleanse. shankhaka shanti sharada sharbata A type of headache precipitated by a pitta-provoking lifestyle and low ojas. Peace of mind; the cultivation of bliss. The autumn season. Syrup 33 shastra sheeta (seetha) sheetali shirah shula shiro shiro shiro roga shiro tapa shirobasti shirodhara shishira shita kashaya shita purva jvara shita virya shitali shlakshna shlesma shodana shodhana shodhana chikitsa shonitasthapana shoolahara shotha shothaghna shothahara (sothahara) shramsanas (sramsanas) shuddhi shukra shukra agni sheta purva jvara shita verya shetale chirobasti chirodhara chiro sheta Science Cold A form of pranayama. Headache; also called shiro roga or shiro tapa. head Head. Headache; also called shirah shula or shiro tapa. Headache; also called shiro roga or shirah shula. A head oil application where oil is held on top of the head for some time. Warm oil poured onto the forehead. Medicated oil applied to the shaved head. The application of warm medicated oil to the forehead over the sixth chakra. The late winter season. Cold infusion (aka hima). 1) Cooling virya. 2) A type of pranayama that is cooling to the system; inhalation is through a curled tongue. Slimy, smooth. To hug Purifying. Make go away; reducing; includes main practices of P. K. shodhana chikitsa See pancha karma. Hemostat; promotes clotting. Pain-relieving herb. Swelling in both feet. Herbs that reduce swelling; anti-inflammatory. Herbs that reduce swelling; anti-inflammatory. Laxatives; expel feces prior to complete digestion. Pure Reproductive tissue; the most refined of the seven dhatus, containing the essence of all other dhatus. A dhatu agni; helps build shukra; the health of this agni determines the health of shukra. Resides in the shukra dhara kala, the membrane that precedes shukra. 34 shukra dhara kala shukra dhatu shukra dhara kala The membrane that holds semen and creative potential. Contains that shukra agni. shukra dhatu One of the seven dhatus or tissues; consists of reproductive tissue, sperm, semen, prostrate fluids, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, ovum, ovaries. Composed of highly refined water; contains the essence of all other dhatus. Psychologically, the ability to sustain creativity (sexually and creative projects). shukrala shukra-shodana shukrasmari shukravaha srota cukracmari A Sanskrit term for an herb that increases sperm count, a category of herb specific to Ayurveda. Purifies the semen. Seminal types of asmari (urinary stones). The channel that carries posaka majja or unstable majja dhatu prior to becoming shukra dhatu; according to the Caraka Saahita it originates in the testes and pudendum, according to the Sushruta Saahita it originates in the testes and breasts, and according to David Frawley it originates in the testes and uterus; the path that sperm travels from the testes until ejaculated by the penis; carrier of kapha dhatu. hukravridhikara shula shula prasamana shunya siddha dugdha siddha ghrita siddha taila siddhas sikita meha sira sirakampa sirasakta, siroroga sirsa jala sisa sita Herbs which increase sperm count. Pain; the terms roga and tapa are also used synonymously for pain. Intestinal antispasmodic. The number zero (0). Example: shunyata, the emptiness or void; a central notion of Buddhism. Medicated milk. Medicated ghee Medicated oil Mystical powers A type of prameha in which the urine contains sand-like particles. Vein; head. Also see nadi. Head tremor. Head disease. Cerebrospinal fluid. Lead, as used in a bhasma made of lead. Cold 35 sita meha slaishmika yoni vyapat sleshaka kapha sleshma sleshma dhara kala smriti sneha snehana snigdha so-hum sokaja soma soma roga sonita sthapaha sosa spandin sparsha sramahara srota so-hum A type of prameha in which the urine is sweet and very cold. Itching in the vagina accompanied by the discharge of pale, slimy blood (mucous mixed with blood). Subdosha of kapha. Provides lubrication in joints, allows for fluid motion, provides joint stability. Located in joints. Mucous or phlegm; synonymous with kapha. The membrane that holds kapha and the rasagni. Loss of memory. medicated ghee and oil 1) Oleation or fat; the term for oil therapy 2) Love Unctuous, oily. A mantra used in harmony with inhalation and expiration to enter into meditation; I am that. Grief See amrit. Endometriosis Hemostat That which causes drying up and loss of tissue Quivering. Touch Energy compensator, stimulant. Channels in the body; some are gross and some are subtle. In some texts, srota is used synonymously with nadi. The ears are also called srota. srotamsi stambhana stanya vaha srota Bodily channels; plural for srotas (bodily systems or channels). Obstruction; restrains or stops flow; astringent. The channel that carries breast milk; consists of the lactation ducts within the breast, but has its origins in the wall of the uterus (so there is a direct connection between the breasts and the uterus and both should be treated when there is a problem with milk production). stanya-jnana stanya-shodana sthira sthula sucimuki yoni v

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

The effects of minimum wage on leisure and free ti Essay Example For Students

The effects of minimum wage on leisure and free ti Essay me: The cons Leisure is something that I feel is important in everyones lives today, although not everyone is accessible to certain types of leisure. I feel in some way leisure has an effect on everyones lives in America, from those in poverty to the Bill Gates of the world. For some people leisure might be going to the park to picnic or just play basketball, but to others it is taking an exotic trip to another country. Whatever form of leisure each individual enjoys or can afford this leisure is most likely having a positive effect on their lives and is almost a necessity to them. This is not just my opinion it is also said by Kelly(1990) that, Some indications have been presented that leisure is increasingly important in the value schemes and schedule of modern western adults(p. We will write a custom essay on The effects of minimum wage on leisure and free ti specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now 11). Kelly states some of the benefits of leisure are: Self expression, companionship, integration of mind and body or Physical health, a needed contrast or rhythm in the work constrained schedule, rest and relaxation, a chance to try something new and to meet new people, to build relationships to consolidate the family, to get in touch with nature, to test oneself in risk or competition, to meet the expectations of people who are important to them, and to just feel good without analyzing why(p.12). I agree with Kelly and feel that these are some of the main reasons as to why leisure is an eccentric part in each individuals lives and that each member that contributes to society in some positive way should have a chance to participate in some form of leisure. Yet this is where the individuals economic status comes into play. Not everyone is able to pursue desired leisure activities but many struggle to experience the normal types of leisure, such as watching television or listening to music. Many politicians argue that raising the minimum wage will help the lower class and give them greater opportunities in society, but I beg to differ. I believe that the minimum wage should not be raised because it is in actuality not helping the economically lower class but hurting them. The minimum wage was established in 1928 at a wage rate of 25 cents. The minimum wage is a price that is imposed by the federal government on the labor market. The central aim of establishing a minimum wage was to increase the standard of living among low skill wage earners. Since its introduction the minimum wage has been raised sixteen times in an effort to try and keep up with inflation. In 1989, President Bush signed an increase in the minimum wage from $3.35 to $4.25. In 1995 President Clinton and his economic advisers decided the minimum wage should be raise to $4.75 by July 1995, and to $5.15 by July 1996. (In formation provided by American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research 1996.) It is now being argued again by Clinton and his advisers that the minimum wage should be raised beyond its current level of $5.15. They claim they are looking out for todays poor working men and women, however increasing the minimum wage is a misguided and wrongheaded policy that will do far more to hurt the poor then help them. First of all when you look at American families there are a few different aspects to examine when looking at their wages. As stated by the National Center for Political Analysis (June 9, 1998), first of all about ten percent of families have less than $10,000 income and about thirty two percent of families have incomes of $50,000 or more, but surprisingly only fifteen percent of low wage workers are in the lowest income families. .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 , .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 .postImageUrl , .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 , .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3:hover , .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3:visited , .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3:active { border:0!important; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3:active , .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3 .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua816417b8c6410261b3ab3f2c068ded3:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Looking Out The Window Essay This means that most of the low wageworkers or those making minimum wage are either teenagers or secondary earners for the family. Usually teenagers are not the ones supporting the family for leisure, rather the parents. So this is not going to benefit the low-income families. Yet why do low-income families have low incomes? Usually it is not because of the low wages people are being paid but rather no wages at all. Many of these people do not . The effects of minimum wage on leisure and free ti Essay Example For Students The effects of minimum wage on leisure and free ti Essay me: The cons Leisure is something that I feel is important in everyones lives today, although not everyone is accessible to certain types of leisure. I feel in some way leisure has an effect on everyones lives in America, from those in poverty to the Bill Gates of the world. For some people leisure might be going to the park to picnic or just play basketball, but to others it is taking an exotic trip to another country. Whatever form of leisure each individual enjoys or can afford this leisure is most likely having a positive effect on their lives and is almost a necessity to them. This is not just my opinion it is also said by Kelly(1990) that, Some indications have been presented that leisure is increasingly important in the value schemes and schedule of modern western adults(p. We will write a custom essay on The effects of minimum wage on leisure and free ti specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now 11). Kelly states some of the benefits of leisure are: Self expression, companionship, integration of mind and body or Physical health, a needed contrast or rhythm in the work constrained schedule, rest and relaxation, a chance to try something new and to meet new people, to build relationships to consolidate the family, to get in touch with nature, to test oneself in risk or competition, to meet the expectations of people who are important to them, and to just feel good without analyzing why(p.12). I agree with Kelly and feel that these are some of the main reasons as to why leisure is an eccentric part in each individuals lives and that each member that contributes to society in some positive way should have a chance to participate in some form of leisure. Yet this is where the individuals economic status comes into play. Not everyone is able to pursue desired leisure activities but many struggle to experience the normal types of leisure, such as watching television or listening to music. Many politicians argue that raising the minimum wage will help the lower class and give them greater opportunities in society, but I beg to differ. I believe that the minimum wage should not be raised because it is in actuality not helping the economically lower class but hurting them. The minimum wage was established in 1928 at a wage rate of 25 cents. The minimum wage is a price that is imposed by the federal government on the labor market. The central aim of establishing a minimum wage was to increase the standard of living among low skill wage earners. Since its introduction the minimum wage has been raised sixteen times in an effort to try and keep up with inflation. In 1989, President Bush signed an increase in the minimum wage from $3.35 to $4.25. In 1995 President Clinton and his economic advisers decided the minimum wage should be raise to $4.75 by July 1995, and to $5.15 by July 1996. (In formation provided by American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research 1996.) It is now being argued again by Clinton and his advisers that the minimum wage should be raised beyond its current level of $5.15. They claim they are looking out for todays poor working men and women, however increasing the minimum wage is a misguided and wrongheaded policy that will do far more to hurt the poor then help them. First of all when you look at American families there are a few different aspects to examine when looking at their wages. As stated by the National Center for Political Analysis (June 9, 1998), first of all about ten percent of families have less than $10,000 income and about thirty two percent of families have incomes of $50,000 or more, but surprisingly only fifteen percent of low wage workers are in the lowest income families. .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 , .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 .postImageUrl , .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 , .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90:hover , .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90:visited , .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90:active { border:0!important; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90:active , .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90 .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2fef01c698e867cee463fc3de8bdac90:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The First Impression Essay This means that most of the low wageworkers or those making minimum wage are either teenagers or secondary earners for the family. Usually teenagers are not the ones supporting the family for leisure, rather the parents. So this is not going to benefit the low-income families. Yet why do low-income families have low incomes? Usually it is not because of the low wages people are being paid but rather no wages at all. Many of these people do not . The effects of minimum wage on leisure and free ti Essay Example For Students The effects of minimum wage on leisure and free ti Essay me: The consLeisure is something that I feel is important in everyones lives today, although not everyone is accessible to certain types of leisure. I feel in some way leisure has an effect on everyones lives in America, from those in poverty to the Bill Gates of the world. For some people leisure might be going to the park to picnic or just play basketball, but to others it is taking an exotic trip to another country. Whatever form of leisure each individual enjoys or can afford this leisure is most likely having a positive effect on their lives and is almost a necessity to them. We will write a custom essay on The effects of minimum wage on leisure and free ti specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now This is not just my opinion it is also said by Kelly(1990) that, Some indications have been presented that leisure is increasingly important in the value schemes and schedule of modern western adults(p.11). Kelly states some of the benefits of leisure are:Self expression, companionship, integration of mind and body or Physical health, a needed contrast or rhythm in the work constrained schedule, rest and relaxation, a chance to try something new and to meet new people, to build relationships to consolidate the family, to get in touch with nature, to test oneself in risk or competition, to meet the expectations of people who are important to them, andto just feel good without analyzing why(p.12). I agree with Kelly and feel that these are some of the main reasons as to why leisure is an eccentric part in each individuals lives and that each member that contributes to society in some positive way should have a chance to participate in some form of leisure. Yet this is where the individuals economic status comes into play. Not everyone is able to pursue desired leisure activities but many struggle to experience the normal types of leisure, such as watching television or listening to music. Many politicians argue that raising the minimum wage will help the lower class and give them greater opportunities in society, but I beg to differ. I believe that the minimum wage should not be raised because it is in actuality not helping the economically lower class but hurting them. The minimum wage was established in 1928 at a wage rate of 25 cents. The minimum wage is a price that is imposed by the federal government on the labor market. The central aim of establishing a minimum wage was to increase the standard of living among low skill wage earners. Since its introduction the minimum wage has been raised sixteen times in an effort to try and keep up with inflation. In 1989, President Bush signed an increase in the minimum wage from $3.35 to $4.25. In 1995 President Clinton and his economic advisers decided the minimum wage should be raise to $4.75 by July 1995, and to $5.15 by July 1996. (In formation provided by American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research 1996.) It is now being argued again by Clinton and his advisers that the minimum wage should be raised beyond its current level of $5.15. They claim they are looking out for todays poor working men and women, however increasing the minimum wage is a misguided and wrongheaded policy that will d o far more to hurt the poor then help them. First of all when you look at American families there are a few different aspects to examine when looking at their wages. As stated by the National Center for Political Analysis (June 9, 1998), first of all about ten percent of families have less than $10,000 income and about thirty two percent of families have incomes of $50,000 or more, but surprisingly only fifteen percent of low wage workers are in the lowest income families. This means that most of the low wageworkers or those making minimum wage are either teenagers or secondary earners for the family. Usually teenagers are not the ones supporting the family for leisure, rather the parents. So this is not going to benefit the low-income families. Yet why do low-income families have low incomes? Usually it is not because of the low wages people are being paid but rather no wages at all. Many of these people do not have the skill required to get a decent paying job. In fact many people do not have their high school diploma.This l eads me in to one of the main reasons as to why I am in opposition of increasing the minimum wage. As the minimum wage increases it has been concluded by a long line of research that this action reduces employment. As I said earlier many people do not have jobs because they do not have the skills, this is going to make it even more difficult for low-income people to get a job. The employer is going to hire a fewer number of people because they must pay the people they hire a larger salary. This goes back to the law of supply and demand because just as a worker will only offer his labor time for a wage he finds beneficial, so an employer will only be willing to pay a certain number of workers that permits themselves to make a profit. If the low-income families do not have a job I believe it is going to be extremely difficult to participate in many forms of leisure. It would be next to impossible for families to go on a vacation without a job because welfare only meets the bare necess ities. I am not saying you have to travel or spend money to experience leisure, but it sure does help. There are many forms of leisure you can engage in without spending money such as sex, reading, yard work and so on. Yet as said in Kelly(1990), most of the forms of leisure represented in public are those who contribute the most to the economy. So things such as the upkeep of public basketball courts or keeping a pond nice and clean so people can fish (those activities that do not require much money), are probably going to be ignored by the public and these are some forms of leisure that low income families can participate in. .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 , .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 .postImageUrl , .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 , .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30:hover , .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30:visited , .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30:active { border:0!important; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30:active , .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30 .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uee643f0059a9b8b0e2adfa192d049e30:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Preparing to Conduct Business in China EssayAs if not being employed is not enough of a burden. As the NationalCenter of Political Analysis states, the minimum wage increases the cost of goods and services produced with low wage labor-goods that are disproportionally purchased by low-income families. So if obviously goods such as food or normal living supplies are going to be raised then the low-income people are going to struggle just to buy these goods and pay their bills. The issue once again goes back to money and that without money certain types of leisure are almost unattainable by the lower income population.(e.g. traveling vacations, pro sports events, going to the movies, etc.)As I stated earlier I feel every individual who contributes to society in a positive way should experience some form of leisure. Basically anyone who can keep a job whether it be from McDonalds to the president of a large law firm needs leisure. It has been proved that there are many positive effects of leisure, such as it relieves stress and has a positive effect on peoples health, just to name a few. So inevitably people need leisure but many times it is accessible through money. With an increase in the minimum wage not only are the economically lower or working class going to struggle to find a job but as well keep a job and this is going to digger a deeper hole for the low income class to experience leisure. Secondly if there is an increase in goods such as food or personal hygiene products, how are they going to manage to purchase these materials as well as purchase leisure? So the two main factors that are going to kill the working class of our society if the min imum wage is increased is one there will be a severe reduction in employment because the employer has to make a profit. It will also be even harder to keep a job because only the most skilled will be kept because it once again goes back to supply and demand and the employer cant afford to pay so many workers at a higher minimum wage that he can not make a profit. The second being that the prices of normal goods will increase, such as gas, groceries and normal living supplies and most families have a set amount of money to spend on these supplies that if their price increases that will cut back on the money spent on leisure. Inevitably if there is a raise in the minimum wage it is only going to hurt the economic status of the lower and working class and these are the individuals or families who are struggling to obtain some forms of leisure.